napis

HOME

 HISTORIA  

WOLNE RODNIKI

REDOX 

GENERATOR H-01 

OFERTA 

  ZDROWIE  

  URODA   

SPORT 

WODY

ATESTY-OPINIE

BADANIA     

 
Dr Alexis Carrel,  French scientist, had received the Nobel prize for keeping the cells of a chicken heart alive for 34 years. Dr. Carrel said: "The cell is immortal. It is merely the fluid in which it floats degenerates. Renew this fluid at intervals, give the cells what they require for nutrition and, as far as we know, the pulsation of life may go on forever." - "Komórka jest nieśmiertelna ! To tylko płyn w której otoczeniu żyje, ją degeneruje! Odnawiając ten płyn systematycznie oraz dając komórce pożywienie którego wymaga, może ona praktycznie żyć wiecznie ! " - dr.Alexis Carrel - francuski Noblista
 

Badania przeprowadzone w Montevideo General Hospital w Urugwaju przez Dr Gracele Camps Salaberry z wodą z Tlacote (3,673 pacjentów) wykazały procentową poprawę jak poniżej:

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

100%

Allergia

99%

Choroby skóry

96%

Respiratory disease-niewydolność układu oddechowego

89%

Digestive organ disease-choroby układu trawienia

91%

Uszkodzenia Neurologiczne

59%

Artretyczne-Reumatyczne-Miażdżyca
87%

Cukrzyca

88%

Należy tutaj zaznaczyć, że niektóre mikroorganizmy odgrywają znaczącą rolę w zapobieganiu, leczeniu lub uzdrawianiu chronicznych chorób takich jak: choroby serca, cukrzyca, rak. Takich mikroorganizmów nie wykryto w wodzie z Tlacote.

JAPONIA

Badania kliniczne przeprowadzone w latach 1985-200 przez Dr Hidemitsu Hayashi oraz Dr Muneori Kawamura, stosujących wodę z generatora H-01 wykazały bardzo dużą efektywność tej wody w leczeniu takich chorób jak:

cukrzyca, stopa cukrzycowa, hypercholesterolenia -"wysoki cholesterol", choroba wieńcowa, nadcisnienie tętnicze, astma, reumatyzm, dna moczanowa, choroba Crohna, zespół Behceta, choroby skóry związane z ubytkiem kolagenu, niektóre choroby serca, wrzody, zaburzenia odporności immunologicznej, SLE, nowotwory, chroniczne zaparcia, biegunka, hiperbilirubinemia noworodków, HIV, alergie, katarakta..

Ministerstwo Zdrowia Japonii po przeprowadzonych badaniach farmakodynamicznych oficjalnie potwierdziło (approval no 57), że kuracja wodą z aktywnym wodorem, produkowaną z generatora H-01 jest efektywna w leczeniu przypadków:

chroniczna biegunka (chronic diarrhea),niestrawności (indigestion), anormalna żołądkowo-jelitowa fermentacja (gastrointestinal aberrant fermentation), zaburzenia kwasów żołądkowych (antacid and hyperchyliac conditions)

POLSKA

Nie będziemy ukrywać, że jesteśmy pionierami jakichkolwiek badań efektywności kuracji antyoksydacyjnej wodą z aktywnym wodorem w Polsce. Przed nami nikt nie zwracał uwagi na to, że woda może mieć właściwości utleniające i tym samym nie wpływać korzystnie na nasze zdrowie. Testy i badania kliniczne są prowadzone w Polsce i Republice Czeskiej na zlecenie Life Improvement Institute z USA, jak dotychczas wykazały, że podczas picia wody z generatora H-01:

następuje obniżanie się cholesterolu ( np. z 235 mg% do 194 mg%),
glukoza u chorego na cukrzycę jest na czczo 130-140 mg% a po kuracji wodą życia jest 86-94 mg%,
u osób z miażdżycą nóg wydłuża się znacznie dystans jaki mogą oni przejść bez bólu w łydkach,
49 letni mężczyzna po 5ciu miesiącach kuracji uzyskał poprawę wzroku z 2.5D na 1.5D (okulary) oraz redukcję wagi ciała o 7kg,
w sklerodermie-remisja zmian w postaci owrzodzeń opuszków palców i obrzęków rąk, nastąpiła 80% poprawa sprawności ruchowej rąk i nóg,
u kilku pacjentów zaobserwowano poprawę efektywności w gojeniu się ran przewlekłych,
pacjentka z Ataksją Fredreicha już po miesięcznej kuracji wodą życia (1 litr dziennie) - wrócił apetyt i zaczęła zanikać częstotliwość używania kul do chodzenia!!!

Inne, obserwowane przez kuracjuszy efekty zdrowotno-kosmetyczne to:
wyraźne zanikanie cellulitów, bardziej wilgotna i gładsza skóra, rewelacyjne działanie kremów nakładanych na skórę razem z wodą życia, zdrowsze włosy, zmniejszony odór potu i odchodów, uregulowane wypróżnianie, zmniejszanie wagi ciała i poprawa ruchu, poprawa widoczności, zwiększone libido i doznania...., testy i doświadczenia prowadzone są w dalszym ciagu.

OBSERWACJE UŻYTKOWNIKÓW
Ciekawostką jest, że np.perfumy włożone w zamkniętej buteleczce do wody życia, po 8-12tu godzinach nabierają zwiększonej efektywności i intensywności zapachowej ! Również trunki trzymane przez 10-12 godzin w tej wodzie zyskują na jakości i łagodniejszym smaku!

Kawa parzona w wodzie życia posiada efektywniejsze właściwości anty-oksydacyjne i jest mniej szkodliwa w kwestii zakwaszania organizmu!

Woda po procesie Grandera nasyca sie aktywnym wodorem dwa razy szybciej aniżeli normalna!

dr George Ashkar poleca wodę z ujemnym potencjałem redox i aktywnym wodorem do wspomagania jego terapii antynowotworowej - www.lekarstwonaraka.com.pl

 

OFICJALNY TEST AKTYWNOŚCI WOLNYCH RODNIKÓW W ORGANIZMIE CZŁOWIEKA
( mężczyzna, wiek 55 lat, zawód: biznesmen, zamieszkanie: Polska południowa
wypijał 1 litr wody z aktywnym wodorem dziennie przy normalnym odżywianiu, przez okres 3 tygodni !
)
Test przeprowadzono przy użyciu oficjalnie stosowanej w medycynie USA metody "Oxidata Urine Test"

   
25 stycznia 2007 - początek testu
wysoka aktywność wolnych rodników
15 luty 2007 - koniec testu
widocznie zmniejszona aktywność wolnych rodników

Clinical test results by Dr. Kawamura Munenori :

The title of the book The effectiveness of hydrogen-rich water

(active hydrogen water, anti-oxidant water)?

Author Dr. Kawamura Munenori and Dr. Shirahata Sanetaka

The first book was published on June 1, 2003.

By just changing water from tap water to hydrogen-rich water, a great number of people have recovered from serious diseases and many regained their health.

Let me introduce the five patients who recovered from serious diseases after drinking hydrogen-rich water (active hydrogen water, anti-oxidant water).

The five cases were chosen from a great number of our medical treatment records.

All five patients who had serious diseases were completely cleared without any relapse, some time after they started drinking hydrogen-rich water.

(1) The first case for Mr. I (a 53 years old male suffering from gangrene caused by diabetes) :

In page 179, 180, 181 and 182

Gangrene is necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis or lack of blood flow. It is usually the result of critically insufficient blood supply sometimes caused by injury and subsequent contamination with bacteria. This condition is most common in the extremities.

Mr. I was a 53 years old male suffering from gangrene caused by diabetes.

He was diagnosed with diabetes about 30 years ago. He had suffered from diabetes for most of his adult life. He started insulin treatment 6 years ago, which was in 1997. However, his diabetic symptoms became exacerbated and got aggravated. He became fundal hemorrhage of the left-eye in November 2001, his right fourth toe developed into gangrene in December 2001 and symptoms of gangrene were aggravated and spread into whole right leg.

When he visited our clinic in March 2002, pus were spurted from all over the feet and legs.

Dr. Kawamura could clearly see toe's bone of Mr. I is melting with X-ray exam.

About one month ago before visiting Dr. Kawamura's clinic, Mr. I went to other hospital. He was pronounced in this hospital that he had no choice but to amputate his below-knee in order to save his life. Because Mr. I did not want to amputate his feet, he started searching an alternative medicine soon after he was diagnosed as being indispensable to amputate his below-knee. He finally found hydrogen-rich water treatment.

That was the main reason for Mr. I to visit Dr. Kawamura's clinic in March 2002.

Dr. Kawamura started making him drink hydrogen-rich water (active hydrogen water). Soon after

Dr. Kawamura started making him drink hydrogen-rich water, melting of his bone in toe halted and shape of the toe's bone started coming in sight. Swelling of feet, legs and toe started to reduce and disappeared completely in 9 months after started drinking hydrogen-rich water. Mr. I had completely recovered from extremely serious gangrene in 9 months after he started drinking hydrogen-rich water.

In page 181, there are (6) pictures of gangrenous patient of Mr. I on conditions of toe and toe's bone. Top picture : at the first medical examination with swollen toe and melted toe's bone

Middle picture : 4 months after started drinking hydrogen-rich water - On the road to recovery

Bottom picture : 9 months after started drinking hydrogen-rich water

Mr. I had completely recovered from extremely serious gangrene 9 months after he started drinking hydrogen-rich water

Dr. Kawamura started using hydrogen-rich water for treatment of diabetic and gangrenous patients in around 1985. Even Dr. Kawamura, before he started using hydrogen-rich water for treatment, in some cases, he had no choice but to amputate toe, feet or legs of gangrenous patients.

(2) The second case for Mr. N (a 60 years old male suffering from Hepatitis C) :

In page 182, 183, 184 and 185

Mr. N was a 60 years old male suffering from Hepatitis C .

Let me introduce a patient Mr. N who recovered from Hepatitis C in one and half year after he started drinking hydrogen-rich water.

Mr. N have visited our clinic one year after I started using hydrogen-rich water for treatment of diseases. When he visited our clinic at the first time, he got depressed mentally since he underwent a visceral cleft operation due to encountering an accident 8 years ago. He was infected with Hepatitis C virus from virus-tainted blood transfusion. Before visiting our clinic, he was told by a large hospital in Kobe that his suffering from Hepatitis C could not be cured for the rest of his life and ensuring chronic hepatitis C can result later in cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Treatment for a disease of Hepatitis C usually involves the intravenous and internal medicine. Before starting such common treatment, I made him drink hydrogen-rich water although I thought it is no better than a placebo since I just started using hydrogen-rich water for treatment only from one year and I didn't have any confidence in hydrogen-rich water treatment at that time.

6 months after we started hydrogen-rich water treatment, Mr. N requested us to stop the intravenous treatment. Although value of his liver function test at that time showed beyond normal value, we accepted him to put an end to the intravenous treatment. Further 6 months after, he requested to halt the internal medicine treatment. At that time almost all values of his liver function test showed within normal value. He looked happier and had a clear complexion, and also looks physically healthy.

One and half year after he started drinking hydrogen-rich water, value of his liver function test showed within normal value. He had completely recovered his health.

He visit us twice a year for regular medical examination after discharge from the clinic.

He became now 70 years old. Value of his liver function test has been showing below normal value

all the time after he left hospital 17 years ago.

17 years ago, he was told in a large hospital that he could end up with cancer. After seeing him walk proudly today, his depressed appearance 17 years ago was as if nothing happened.

In page 185, there is a diagram of the result of Mr. N's liver function test from 1886 to 2002.

Standard value AST (aspartate aminotransferase)

ALT (alanine aminotransferase)

?-GTP (?-glutamyl transpeptidase)

ChE (cholinesterase)

You will see from a diagram in page 185, one year after Mr. N started drinking hydrogen-rich water,

the result of almost all liver function test was normalized.

(3) The third case of Mr. S (a 44 years old male suffered from ulcerative colitis) :

In page 186, 187 and 188

Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowl disease. Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine, specially the large intestine or colon, that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores, in the colon. The main symptom of active disease is usually diarrhea mixed with blood and mucus, of gradual onset. They also may have signs of weight loss, and blood on rectal examination. The disease is usually accompanied with different degrees of abdominal pain, from mild discomfort to severely painful cramps. Ulcerative colitis is an intermittent disease, with periods of exacerbated symptoms, and periods that are relatively symptom-free. Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission. Ulcerative colitis is a rare disease.

Treatment is with anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppression (suppressing the immune system), and biological therapy targeting specific components of the immune response. Colectomy (partial or total removal of the large bowel through surgery) is occasionally necessary, and is considered to be a cure for the disease.

Mr. S was a 44 years old male suffering from ulcerative colitis.

Ulcerative colitis is Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare certified specified diseases and is also regarded as one of the life-threatening illnesses. The chances of getting Ulcerative colitis is more in 20s. Steroid drug and others are used for treatment. It is regarded as serious disease which is extremely difficult to cure.

It is a disease which has the risky possibility of in association with cancer of colon and rectum. He was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis at the age of 29 years old in 1987.

One year ago in 1986, after bleeding during a bowel movement, he went to nearby hospital and was diagnosed with hemorrhoid. Even after two months, there was no sigh of improvement. He then

went to another large hospital two months after initial medical examination in December 1986. He was diagnosed with proctitis and the doctor prescribed medicine for him.

With the time passing on, his sickness was deteriorating. Not only he had bleeding but also had mucous and bloody stool. Diarrhea was getting worse and he had more than ten bowel movements daily, all day long. As the results of such unpleasant continuous symptoms, he was depressed mentally. Having had such a severe worsening symptoms, he underwent an endoscopical examination and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis.

He visited our clinic in October 1988 which was the following year he was diagnosed as having an ulcerative colitis. Soon after his hospitalization, we told him to halt taking steroid drug. We made him drink hydrogen-rich water instead of steroid drug, along with medicine. Distinguishing characteristics of this disease is an intermittent disease and it alternates during exacerbations and during symptoms-free period. Usually every period of exacerbated symptoms, the disease is aggravated and progressed.

In case of Mr. S, he had never experienced during exacerbations after his admission in our clinic. Initially he suffered from mucous and bloody stool. However symptoms have never been deteriorated but have been improved gradually after he began hydrogen-rich water treatment.

We began hydrogen-rich water treatment on Mr. S 17 years ago. At that time, we have not had

much experience in hydrogen-rich water treatment. Mr. S drank 3-4 litres of hydrogen-rich water per day and he was eager to learn more about the effectiveness of hydrogen-rich water. We taught him every knowledge about the effectiveness of hydrogen-rich water.

It took him 8 years before we allowed him to stop taking sovereign remedy for ulcerative colitis

because of his suffering from incurable, and a life-threatening disease. As the result of 8 years efforts, it became unnecessary to take magic bullet for ulcerative colitis.

He is now drinking hydrogen-rich water only. He has a regular medical checkup yearly.

He is cured effectively as the result of hydrogen-rich water treatment.

He has completely recovered from incurable disease of ulcerative colitis.

He has been leading a normal life, thanks to complete recovery from incurable disease.

(4) The forth case of Ms. M (a 18 years old female suffering from atopic dermatitis) :

In page 188, 189, 190 and 191

Ms. M was a 18 years old female suffering from atopic dermatitis .

She suffered for the long time since childhood from atopic dermatitis and could not be cured effectively even under specialist treatment.

She first visited our clinic in November 1994. When I first examined her, the disease was spreading to face and extend to sides of arms, showing extensive oozing and crusting. Later on, the typical preferential pattern with eczematous skin lesions of flexures, neck and hands develops, accompanied by dry skin. As a result of scratching and rubbing, her new exacerbations are followed by erythema, papules and infiltration. She suffered from hardening skin as a result of her taking steroid drug for the long time. Steroid drug used for treatment of atopic dermatitis, it initially uses lower-potency drug. However, it will be switched to use strong-potency drug for the time to pass.

When you keep using steroid drug for treatment of atopic dermatitis for a long period, there are always side-effect, like deposit of pigment and hardening skin. As a result of side-effect, skin will become stiff like crocodile skin. There will be no effectiveness when one put medicine on top of stiff skin.

She visited our clinic in her worst condition. We admitted her to our clinic and we told her to halt taking steroid drug. We made her drink hydrogen-rich water instead of steroid drug.

It was said generally that curing atopic dermatitis without steroid drug is extremely difficult. However, we had a great number of cases for curing atopic dermatitis by making patients drink hydrogen-rich water at that time. We therefore took hydrogen-rich water treatment without hesitation. There was no rebound after halting steroid drug. The patient was doing well after she started drinking hydrogen-rich water and halted steroid drug.

She was dedicated to cure atopic dermatitis and she was drinking 4-5 litres daily of hydrogen-rich water. 4 months after she began drinking hydrogen-rich water, her hardened skin became soft. As a result of full recovery, she was discharged from our clinic 4 months after she began hydrogen-rich water treatment.

It used to be said that it is extremely difficult for deposit of pigment and hardening skin to be cured.

Before she visited our clinic in 1994, she consulted and sought treatment from many good doctors.

However, her illness has not cured well and has relapsed. The attack seemed to be even more severe. In October, 1994, her parents were in despair and feared she could not be cured effectively for the rest of her life.

Her parent happened to know our clinic and when given hydrogen-rich water to her, the results are most significant. During my long years of servicing atopic dermatitis cases, I found that the people with atopic dermatitis who consumed hydrogen-rich water tend to have responded well and completely cured without any relapse after one to four months.

In page 191, there are (4) pictures of atopic dermatitis patient of Ms. M on conditions of face and back.

Top picture : at the first medical examination with face and back

Bottom picture : 4 months after started drinking hydrogen-rich water

 

(5) The fifth case for Mr. E (a 49 years old male suffering from gangrene caused by diabetes) :

In page 192, 193 and 194

Mr. E was a 49 years old male suffering from gangrene caused by diabetes.

Mr. E was diagnosed with diabetes first in 1997. However, he had left diabetes untreated for the time being. While he had left diabetes untreated, his diabetic case had been becoming exacerbated and in 2000 he started an internal medicine treatment. In September 2002, his left fifth toe developed into swollen with severe pain and it was maturated and pus was spurted from his toe. Pain got aggravated. He was obliged to visit a hospital. He was pronounced in the hospital that his lower left ankle must amputate in order to avoid further exacerbation. It was a tremendous blow to him like a person struck by lightning. As a taxi driver, for him it was a matter of life and death.

Soon after he was pronounced by the other hospital that amputation of foot was indispensable,

he started searching an alternative medicine because he did not want to amputate his ankle.

He had finally reached to hydrogen-rich water treatment.

He visited Dr. Kawamura's clinic on October 8, 2002 as a last straw . It was just 10 days after he was pronounced that he must have his ankle amputated.

Dr. Kawamura started making him drink hydrogen-rich water along with an internal medicine treatment.

He was drinking 5-6 litres per day of hydrogen-rich water in order to recover from serious gangrene as early as possible.

As a result of drinking 5-6 litres of hydrogen-rich water daily, the sugar in the blood dropped from over 200mg/dl to 140-150mg/dl. Hemoglobin AC also dropped from 8.2 to 6.0.

Three months after hospitalization, his gangrenous parts started shrinking in its size greatly. Consequently, he discharged from the clinic and switched to attend the clinic as an outpatient.

Just after hospitalization he was walking on his unaccustomed crutch at the clinic corridor. Being discharging from a clinic, it was as if nothing had occurred three months ago.

Mr. E. once gave up being integrated into society due to serious gangrene.

He felt happy after returning to a normal life. One month after discharge from the clinic, he had X-ray exam. A once melting bone, now the shape of toe's bone is clearly seen. He was completely recovered from gangrene.

 

In page 193, there are (5) pictures of gangrenous patient of Mr. E on conditions of toe and toe's bone.

Top picture : at the first medical examination with swollen toe and melted toe's bone

Middle picture : 4 months after started drinking hydrogen-rich water

Bottom picture : 6 months after started drinking hydrogen-rich water

 

 

Protection of reduced water (active hydrogen) pancreatic β-cell damage against reactive oxygen species

Cytotechnology 40: 139149, 2002. Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic β-cell damage: Scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species
© 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
nERW and Hita Tenryosui water increased glucose stimulated ATP levels to 270% and Nordenau water 150%. nAlloxan decreased glucose-stimulated cellular ATP levels to 47% of the level of non-treated HIT-T15 cells. n Even after alloxan treatment, ERW and Hita Tenryosui-treated cells sustained the high ATP level of 220% and Nordenauwater-treated cells 100%. nThe commercial natural mineral waters did not exhibit
such an enhancing effect on glucose-stimulated ATP level or protective effects against alloxan-induced damage.
 Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.

Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y. Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. sirahata@grt.kyushu-u.ac.jp Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be 'active hydrogen'. 'Active hydrogen' can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH. PMID: 9169001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 Allergies

Prof. Kuninaka Hironaga, Head of Kuninaka Hospital
"Mr. Yamada, the head of Police Research Institute, suffered from severe allergy. He was treated repeatedly by skin specialist, but with no success. Then he started consuming antioxidant water. The allergy responded very well and was soon completely cured. No relapse had occurred, although he had taken all kinds of food. He was most grateful and excited about this treatment.

As for myself, I had also suffered severe allergy. Ever since I began to consume antioxidant water, the allergy has recovered. Since then, I started a research on the effectiveness of
antioxidant water.

I discovered that most allergies are due to acidification of body condition and is also related to consuming too much meat and sugar. In every allergy case, the patient's antioxidant minerals are excessively low which in turn lower the body resistance significantly. The body becomes overly sensitive and develops allergy easily. 

The ionic calcium not only enhances the heart, urination, and neutralization of toxins but controls acidity. It also enhances the digestive system and liver function. This will promote natural healing power and hence increase its resistance to allergy.
In some special cases of illness, which do not respond to drugs, it is found, it is found to respond well to antioxidant water."

J. Neurochem. 2006 Jun;97(6):1634-58.
Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now?
Halliwell B.


Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

The brain and nervous system are prone to oxidative stress, and are inadequately equipped with antioxidant defense systems to prevent 'ongoing' oxidative damage, let alone the extra oxidative damage imposed by the neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, increased oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of oxidized aggregated proteins, inflammation, and defects in protein clearance constitute complex intertwined pathologies that conspire to kill neurons. After a long lag period, therapeutic and other interventions based on a knowledge of redox biology are on the horizon for at least some of the neurodegenerative diseases.

PMID: 16805774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Feb 15;40:591-600  
Vitamin C prophylaxis promotes oxidative lipid damage during surgical ischemia-reperfusion.
Damian M Bailey, Sudarsanam Raman, Jane McEneny, Ian S Young, Kelly L Parham, David A Hullin, Bruce Davies, Gareth McKeeman, Joe M McCord, Michael H Lewis
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the cellular membrane damage and postoperative morbidity associated with obligatory ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) during vascular surgery. Thus, a clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ascorbate prophylaxis on ROS exchange kinetics in 22 patients scheduled for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or infra-inguinal bypass (IIB) repair. Patients were assigned double-blind to receive intravenous sodium ascorbate (2 g vitamin C, n = 10) or placebo (0.9% saline, n = 12) administered 2 h prior to surgery. Blood samples were obtained from the arterial and venous circulation proximal to the respective sites of surgical repair (local) and from an antecubital vein (peripheral) during cross-clamping (ischemia) and within 60 s of clamp release (reperfusion). Ascorbate supplementation increased the venoarterial concentration difference (v-a(diff)) of lipid hydroperoxides (LH), interleukin (IL)-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein during ischemia. This increased the peripheral concentration of LH, total creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and VEGF protein during reperfusion (P < 0.05 vs placebo). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy confirmed that free iron was available for oxidative catalysis in the local ischemic venous blood of supplemented patients. An increased concentration of the ascorbate radical (A(-)) and alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) adducts assigned as lipid-derived alkoxyl (LO()) and alkyl (LC()) species were also detected in the peripheral blood of supplemented patients during reperfusion (P < 0.05 vs ischemia). In conclusion, these findings suggest that ascorbate prophylaxis may have promoted iron-induced oxidative lipid damage via a Fenton-type reaction initiated during the ischemic phase of surgery. The subsequent release of LH into the systemic circulation may have catalyzed formation of second-generation radicals implicated in the regulation of vascular permeability and angiogenesis.

Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Oct ;31:1062-5
Oxidative modification of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins.
I S Young, C McFarlane, J McEneny
Lipoprotein oxidation is thought to play a pivotal role in the evolution of atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the main source of oxidized lipid in the arterial wall. Oxidation of LDL alters its properties in a number of ways, making it more atherogenic, but oxidation of other lipoprotein classes may also be important. Common mechanisms are likely to contribute to the oxidation of all lipoprotein classes, with enzyme-mediated oxidation likely to be most important. Antioxidant content, fatty acid composition, particle size and the presence of seeding hydroperoxides also influence oxidative reactions. Larger triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are less likely to enter the arterial wall than LDL, but when oxidized will deliver a greater oxidant load to the arterial wall.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006 Sep ;65:894-904 [Pubmed] [Scholar] [Select] [Hide] 
Lipid peroxidation during human cerebral myelination. 
Robin L Haynes, Rebecca D Folkerth, Luke I Szweda, Joseph J Volpe, Hannah C Kinney 
The critical period of human cerebral myelination is characterized by rapid production of cellular membranes. We hypothesize that this period is subject to the "physiological" generation of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation (LPO). In this study, oxidative markers were examined in developing human parietal white matter using 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) protein adducts as an indicator of LPO. Immunocytochemistry showed an increase in HNE-positive glia from 40 gestational weeks to 1.5 postnatal years encompassing the peak period of myelin sheath synthesis at this site. Western blots showed a distinct pattern of HNE-modified proteins at fetal/term ages 26 to 42 gestational weeks and a second, different pattern at 45 gestational weeks to 2.5 postnatal years. Proteins modified by HNE in the latter period, corresponding to active myelination, were identified using mass spectrometry. The most prominent category of HNE modification included cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulins and neurofilaments. Other categories included cell type-specific proteins for mature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and proteins involved in cell cycle and energy metabolism. We conclude that human brain development involves basal levels of oxidative stress and resulting LPO and that these processes target different proteins in an age-specific manner, thereby likely playing distinct roles during different periods of brain maturation.